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PLANTING
1.
Sugarcane is usually propagated by cutting the stalk...
2.
FACTORS OF GERMINATION
3.
EXTERNAL FACTORS OF GERMINATION
     

Planting

Sugarcane is usually propagated by cutting the stalk with 3 or more buds and about a footlong. These planting materials are called setts or seed pieces. Top cuttings from the upper portion of mature stalks germinate faster with higher percentage germination than cuttings from older basal portion of the stalks. Top cuttings are usually obtained during harvesting of unburned canes.

Another way of sourcing planting materials is by “cut-back”. Young canes usually 6 months old are cut to the ground and the stalks are cut into seed pieces. Cutting seed pieces should be done manually to avoid damaging the buds. Damaged buds will not germinate thus the need to replant. top...

FACTORS OF GERMINATION

Good germination is necessary as it is the foundation of a good crop. Germination consists of the development of the bud, the growing point and primordial of the leaves and roots to form a new shoot. The cutting contains root band primordial which develop function until the young shoot has produced its own roots. top...

EXTERNAL FACTORS OF GERMINATION

Temperature
The ideal soil temperature for good germination is between 93 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Warm, moist soil is desirable for the rapid germination and early growth of the plant. top...

Moisture
Sufficient soil moisture is necessary to enhance the shift of the bud from dormancy stand of the crop will result.
top...

Soil Tilt
Satisfactory soil tilt is attained through proper land preparation, otherwise, tender rootlets that emerge will not develop as they should. If the soil is not well-pulverized, the roots will not be in contact with sufficient soil surface to obtain moisture and nutrients for the growing crop. If the soils are compacted, the roots will encounter difficulties resulting in reduced plant growth and possibly death of the plants. Soil aeration is also important for good germination. top...

Seed Selection and Treatment

Selection of seed pieces is very important in attaining good germination.

Selected seedpieces with 3 viable eyes with no growing points and disease-free will insure better germination, while yield is expected to increase by 6 TC/Ha. and 12 Lkg. Bags sugar per hectare.

Treatment of seed pieces, on the other hand, is necessary to prevent rotting. Dipping seed pieces in organic mercurial solution will protect the seedpieces against soil-borne organisms.

Seedpieces treated with chemicals as preventive control for diseases resulted in higher yield by 47 TC/Ha. Based on a study conducted by the SRA.
Soaking seedpieces in water also enhances germination. The main objective of this this practice is to dilute sucrose in the seedpiece which inhibits germination.

Hot water treatment of seedpieces is also recommended against diseases particularly Ratoon Stunding Disease(RSD). Soaking the seedpieces for 20 minutes at 52 degrees C is just enough to get rid them of the diseases.
A 1995 Philippines Sugar Research and development Study revealed that the cause of the inability of planters to grow more ratoon crops appears not to lie on smut or soil-related problems. Based on observations, the main problem seems to be rapid spread of RSD. top...

Pre-fertilizing Seedpieces
In case when seed pieces are to be obtained from a seed nursery, it is advisable to fertilize the canes prior to cutting. The usual practice is to apply the fertilizer 4 to 6 weeks before cutback to make sure that adequate nutrients are immediately available to the germinating seedlings.

The Colonial Sugar and Refining Company (1960) of New South Wales reported the following results from pre-fertilizing seeds as follows:
· More rapid and vigorous development of roots and shoots in the bed planted from pre-fertilized seeds.
· 38% more shoots at 7 weeks after planting; and
· 69% to 90% more shoots after 15 weeks. At this stage, the shoots were 9 inches higher in fertilized seeds. top

Depth of Planting
Depth of planting and thickness of soil covering are also important in achieving good germination. These factors, however, vary with different soil conditions. For soils with good tilt and good drainage, planting in deep furrows of 10 to 16 inches is recommended, while for unirrigated fields or with sprinkler irrigation, planting in shallower furrows of 10 to 12 inches deep is advisable.

A study by the SRA showed that a planting depth of 10 to 12 inches yielded 8 TC/Ha. And 1.5 Lkg bags sugar per hectare.

The seed should also be covered with only 1 to 2 inches of soil. Deeper covering delays emergence and often result with 1,3, and 5 inches of Hawaiian soils and found that germination percentages were 96, 93 and 51, respectively.

The thickness of soil covering the seedpieces not only influences the germination and establishment of the crop’s stand but also the early development of the stools.

With shallowing plantings, care must be taken to keep the surface soil moist by frequent light irrigations. Subsequent tillage operations may be applied to throw more soil on the growing stool for maximum rootings at a deeper soil covering. top...

Rate of Planting
The rate of planting (number of seedpieces) depends on the variety and time of planting. Varieties with good germination and heavy tillering potentials may need lower rate of planting while varieties that are poor in germination and tillering need higher rate of planting.

On the other hand, when planting on unirrigated field, the rate of seeding shall depend on the time of planting. In this instance, when planting falls during the dry period, 60,000 seedpieces is recommended.

An SRA study showed that increasing the rate of planting during dry season from 30,000 points to 60,000 points per hectare increases the yield by 10 TC/Ha. And 23 Lkg. Bags sugar per hectare. top...

Positioning Of Planting
The planting position of seedpieces shall depend on the time of planting. When planting falls during the rainy period, planting of the seedpieces are slanting position, about 45% slant, to prevent the seeds from rotting due to excessive soil moisture. During dry period planting, the seedpieces should be laid flat along the furrows for greater contact with the soil and for better access to the soil moisture.

An SRA study showed that increasing the rate of planting during dry season from 30,000 points 60,000 points per hectare increases the yield by 10 TC/Ha. and 23 Lkg. Bags sugar per hectare. top...

Positioning and Planting
The planting position of seedpieces shall depend on the time planting. When planting falls during the rainy period, planting of the seedpieces are in slanting position, about 45% slant, to prevent the seeds from rotting due to excessive soil moisture. During dry period planting, the seedpieces should be laid flat along the furrows for greater contact with the soil and for better access to the soil moisture.

Slanting position of planting at 30,000 to 40,000 cane per hectare during wet season and horizontal position at 50,000 to 60,000 points per hectare during dry season yielded 6 TC/Ha. and 13 Lkg. Bags sugar per hectare higher than their reversed position. top...

Use of high Yielding Varieties
Continuous improvement of cane varieties through breeding is a must in sugar production. Since sugarcane is a flowering plant, the yield of a variety degenerates over time as results of pollination rendering the variety improve and making it susceptible to diseases. top...

 

 
 
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